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Megafauna and ecosystem function from the pleistocene to the anthropocene

Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene Large herbivores and carnivores (the megafauna) have been in a state of decline and extinction since the Late Pleistocene, both on land and more recently in the oceans Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene Yadvinder Malhi, Christopher E. Doughty, Mauro Galetti, Felisa A. Smith, Jens-Christian Svenning, and John W. Terborgh PNAS January 26, 2016 113 (4) 838-846; first published January 26, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.150254011 In this paper, we review evidence for megafaunal impacts on ecosystem function, on timescales ranging from the Late Pleistocene to the present. Understanding the consequences of past extinctions is valuable for a number of reasons: in particular because the loss of megafauna may have an enduring but little-recognized legacy on the functioning of the contemporary biosphere. Much of our current understanding of ecosystem ecology and biogeochemistry has been developed in a world. Large herbivores and carnivores (the megafauna) have been in a state of decline and extinction since the Late Pleistocene, both on land and more recently in the oceans. Much has been written on the..

  1. The loss of megafauna cascades through all levels of functioning of ecosystems. Even the apparently wildest contemporary landscapes likely carry the legacies of lost megafauna, and the consequences of contemporary decline of elephants and other megafauna may be felt for centuries or millennia to come. This improved understanding of the many ways that megafauna have influenced ecology and biogeochemistry may also help identify hitherto underappreciated and unidentified ecosystem.
  2. ing how megafauna - large animals - affect ecosystem and Earth.
  3. ing the role that large animals (megafauna) play in ecosystem function in the context of past, present and future.
  4. g and causes of these declines, but only recently has scientific attention focused on the consequences of these declines for ecosystem function
  5. 58.2k members in the ecology community. Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, house; -λογία, study of) is the scientific study of the relations that
  6. Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene Proceedings of but only recently has scientific attention focused on the consequences of these declines for ecosystem function. Here, we review progress in our understanding of how megafauna affect ecosystem physical and trophic structure, species composition, biogeochemistry, and climate, drawing on special features.

This three-day conference will examine the role that large animals (megafauna) play in ecosystem function, in the context of past, present and future ecosystems, ranging from the Arctic to tropical rainforests. It will explore how the extinction of megafauna in the past has altered the structure of function of ecosystems, look at the patterns and consequences of modern-day megafaunal decline, and explore the potential and controversies surrounding megafaunal rewilding Megafauna and Ecosystem Function: From the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene International Conference: March 201 Megafauna and ecosystem function: from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Tuesday 18 - Thursday 20 March 2014 St John's College, University of Oxford. The Environmental Change Institute and the Oxford Martin School will host a three-day conference exploring the ecological and environmental consequences of megafauna (large animal) extinctions. The conference will consider the. Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Journal Article (Review;Journal Article) Large herbivores and carnivores (the megafauna) have been in a state of decline and extinction since the Late Pleistocene, both on land and more recently in the oceans

Megafauna and Ecosystem Function: From the Pleistocene to

Oxford Megafauna Meeting - Megafauna and Ecosystem Function

  1. A recent conference on 'Megafauna and ecosystem function: from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene' at Oxford Univ. brought together paleontologists, conservation and environmental scientists and others who share an interest in characterizing the influence of large animals on ecosystems. Integrating historical perspectives of Late Pleistocene ecosystems when large‐bodied animals were.
  2. g and causes of these declines, but only recently has scientific attention focused on the consequences of these declines for ecosystem function
  3. Yadvinder Malhi, Christopher E. Doughty, Mauro Galetti, Felisa A. Smith, Jens-Christian Svenning and John W. Terborgh, Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113, 4, (838), (2016)
  4. Mahli, Yadvinder, prefacer Washington, DC : National Academy of Sciences, 2016 illus., incl. 1 table Megafauna and ecosystem function; from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene, prefaced by Yadvinder Mahli, Christopher E. Doughty, Mauro Galetti, Felisa A. Smith, Jens-Christian Svenning and John W. Terborgh. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(4.
  5. Pleistocene rewilding is the advocacy of the reintroduction of extant Pleistocene megafauna, or the close ecological equivalents of extinct megafauna.It is an extension of the conservation practice of rewilding, which involves reintroducing species to areas where they became extinct in recent history (hundreds of years ago or less)..

From the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Conference in Oxford. Last week Jordi Pagès attended the Megafauna and ecosystem function conference in Oxford. It was a multidisciplinary meeting full of interesting people from different fields. The conference had three aims: (1) to understand megafaunal extinctions, (2) to become aware of the great impacts of megafauna on ecosystem functioning. Conference: Megafauna and Ecosystem Function: from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 838-846 (2016) M E G A F A U N A & ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene Conference Programme Tuesday 18 March 2014 Day 1: Causes and impacts of megafaunal loss 09:00 - 9:20 Introduction Yadvinder Malhi Ghosts of lost giants: what it means to live in a megafauna- 20 minutes depleted world, and what can or should be done? 09:20 - 09:50 20 minute talk + Adrian Lister Mammoth extinction. We assessed how Anthropocene megafauna richness com-pares to those of past geological epochs. For each continent, we compared megafauna species richness and conservation status between the late Pleistocene (50 000-10 000 BP), Holocene ( 10 000 BP), and Anthropocene (past ~200 yr) epochs. Only inter-continental introduced megafauna were included

Megafauna and Ecosystem Function: from the Pleistocene to

Megafauna and ecosystem functions: learning from the giants Submitted by editor on 28 October 2015.. By Yadvinder Mahli. We live in the shadows of lost giants. Until relatively recently almost every major vegetated land area on Earth possessed an abundance of large animals that we now only associate with African game parks Malhi Y, Doughty CE, Galetti M, Smith FA, Svenning J, Terborgh JW. (2016) Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. PNAS. 113(4). 10. Sandom C, Faurby S, Sandel B, Svenning J. (2014) Global late Quaternary megafauna extinctions linked to humans, not climate change A recent conference on 'Megafauna and ecosystem function: from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene' at Oxford Univ. brought together paleontologists, conservation and environmental scientists and others who share an interest in characterizing the influence of large animals on ecosystems. Integrating his- torical perspectives of Late Pleistocene ecosystems when large-bodied animals were.

The effort includes several research papers in an effort that stemmed from a conference titled Megafauna and ecosystem function: from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene, Smith co-organized at. Terrestrial herbivorous megafauna are undergoing severe declines around the world. Of 74 extant large terrestrial herbivorous mammal species with body masses ≥ 100 kg, 44 (∼60%) are threatened with extinction (Ripple et al. 2015).The decline of this functional group began 10 000-50 000 yr ago, most likely due to overhunting by humans during the late Pleistocene (Barnosky et al. 2004.

Human impact on megafauna

Megafauna and ecosystem function: from the Pleistocene to

Dal workshop Megafauna and Ecosystem Function: from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene, tenutosi all'università di Oxford dal 18 al 20 marzo 2014, è venuta fuori una imponente serie di. However, perhaps the more relevant group of animals lost, both to us and to our current environment, were the megafauna lost towards the end of the Pleistocene. Northern Spain by Mauricio Antón recent conference on Megafauna and ecosystem function: from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene at Oxford University brought together paleontologists, conservation and environmental scientists and others who share an interest in characterizing the influence of large animals on ecosystems. Integrating historical perspectives of Late Pleistocene ecosystems when large-bodied animals were. Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 113 ( 2016 ) , pp. 838 - 846 CrossRef View Record in Scopus Google Schola Studies found that the Middle and Late Pleistocene may be closer to the true age of Australian megafauna and therefore is unrelated to human involvement (Wroe et al., 2013). The Last Glacial Period which occurred in the Pleistocene is likely to be when the animals arose and struggled to endure the arid and warmer temperatures (Australian Museum, 2018).This is supported by the evidence of.

Recent (2016) special issue in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA on Megafauna and Ecosystem Function: From the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene Recent (2016) megafauna special issue in Ecography. Popular science paper on the late-Quaternary megafauna extinction. The Researcher Behind Professor Jens-Christian Svenning, Aarhus University. Academic Profile. Aarhus University. Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2016; 113: 838-846. Crossref; PubMed; Scopus (183) Google Scholar ]. Abundant research shows that large herbivores — and especially megaherbivores — have profound direct and indirect effects on plants, small animals, fire regimes, and ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling and. Anthropocene is a term introduced The climate change theory has suggested that a change in climate near the end of the late Pleistocene stressed the megafauna to the point of extinction. Some scientists favor abrupt climate change as the catalyst for the extinction of the mega-fauna at the end of the Pleistocene, but there are many who believe increased hunting from early modern humans. Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 113, 838-846. Faurby, S., Werdelin, L. & Svenning, J.-C. (2016). The difference between trivial and scientific names: There were never any true cheetahs in North America

Environmental Change Institute - University of Oxfor

What caused the extinction of megafauna in the past? The Pleistocene Era ended 11,500 years ago. During the final 2,000 years of the Pleistocene Era, the world suddenly became a very different place. In short order, only nine species of the fifty megaherbivores remained worldwide: 3 species of elephants, 5 species of rhinoceros, 1 species of hippopotamus. Some continents have been hit harder. The Pleistocene extinc- global driver during this period. tions would also force the once mobile hunters of Another such event at this time was the the megafauna to become more sedentary be- extinction of the Pleistocene megaherbivores. cause their new, smaller prey would have smaller These extinctions are generally explained as ranges, and becoming sedentary is a first step driven by human.

The argument over what mechanism was responsible Accepted 23 November 2016 for megafauna extinction in Australia, however, remains heavily contested. This contribution investigates Available online 10 January 2017 the age of a single articulated megafauna specimen of Zygomaturus trilobus from the Willandra Lakes. The Willandra is unique in that it . Open Advanced Search. Log in Sign up - Try 2. Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Malhi, Yadvinder, et al. 4, 2016, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, pp. 838-846. Late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions on the continents: a short review

Conference announcement: Megafauna and Ecosystem Function

How did megafauna-dependent plants survive after the demise of the giant Pleistocene seed dispersers? Before hand, be warned that coextinctions are very difficult to assess and demonstrate in nature, especially for certain groups (e.g., hosts and ectoparasites). Moreover, think of the myriad possibilities for plants to stay on place even with collapsed dispersal: just haphazar Anthropocène,entre Terre et MerPartie 1. Anthropocène, entre Terre et Mer. Partie 1. Aujourd'hui, des espèces du continent Américain et Australien sont mélangées, un phénomène unique depuis la séparation de la Pangée il y a 200 millions d'années. La concentration en carbone atmosphérique atteint un niveau jamais observé depuis. Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene Abstract Large herbivores and carnivores (the megafauna) have been in a state of decline and extinction since the Late Pleistocene, both on land and more recently in the oceans. Much has been written on the timing and causes of these declines, but only recently has scientific attention focused on the consequences of.

Megafauna extinta y actual (con ejemplos) Por. Raquel Parada Puig. La megafauna son aquellos animales que poseen un gran tamaño, tal y como los dinosaurios, los elefantes, los tiburones, los mamuts, etc. El vocablo deriva de la composición de dos palabras del latín que significan, literalmente, animal-grande Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(4), 838-846. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(4), 838-846 Ecologists are studying the role of extinct megafauna in the functioning of ecosystems: this is called paleoecology. As a graduate in Land Management for Conservation, I find it fascinating to study the origins of the species alive today and to discover the past influences on their evolution and ecology. During the Pleistocene, almost all (>98%) botanical species present today were in.

Megafauna in the Earth system - Smith - 2016 - Ecography

Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene drawing on special features of PNAS and Ecography that have been published as a result of an international workshop on this topic held in Oxford in 2014. Insights emerging from this work have consequences for our understanding of changes in biosphere function since the Late Pleistocene and of the functioning of. Aug 16, 2020 - Explore Food production & climate issu's board articles/videos - megafauna, followed by 249 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about megafauna, extinction, prehistoric animals

Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Malhi Y, Doughty CE, Galetti M, Smith FA, Svenning JC, Terborgh JW. Malhi Y, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Jan 26;113(4):838-46. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1502540113. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016. PMID:. Recent (2016) special issue in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA on Megafauna and Ecosystem Function: From the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene Recent (2016) megafauna special issue in Ecography. Popular science paper on the late-Quaternary megafauna extinction. The Researcher Behind Professor Jens-Christian Svenning, Aarhus University. Academic Profile. Aarhus University. Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 113 , 838 - 846 . Marris , E. ( 2009 ) Megafauna and Ecosystem Function: From the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene ; Zhang et al. 2015 Regional and historical factors supplement current climate in shaping global forest canopy height ; Göldel et al. 2015 Geographical variation and environmental correlates of functional trait distributions in palms (Arecaceae) across the New World ; Ordonez and Svenning 2015 Geographic patterns in.

Unraveling the consequences of the terminal Pleistocene

Malhi Y. et al. (2016), 'Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene', Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the USA 113: 838-846. Share This. Y 1; m 1; H 1; Community Choice Prize Category Winner See All Winners. Honoree. Tsai, Yi-Ting & Kao, Ying-Han. School . National Taiwan University of Science and Technology. Project Team. Special Thanks to. Yadvinder Malhi, Christopher E. Doughty, Mauro Galetti, Felisa A. Smith, Jens-Christian Svenning, John W. Terborgh Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113, no.4 4 (Jan 2016): 838-846 Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene [10.1073/pnas.1502540113]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(4), 838

Rewilding, it is said, could go some way to reconstructing those ecosystems. The conference, 'Megafauna and Ecosystem Function: from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene', which took place from 18-20 March, investigated the causes of these extinctions, and the challenges and possibilities of restoring landscapes to their 'natural' state Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113: 838-846. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113: 838-846 Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 113 ( 4 ): 838 - 846 . Marsh , G. P. 1864 The Anthropocene as a distinct geological era has been the subject of active discussion within the scientific community. This era includes the notion that Homo sapiens has had a large impact on global planetary processes.Here, we aim at connecting the notion and nature of the Anthropocene with the social-economic success and the unexpected or unplanned environmental impacts of the. Megafauna and Ecosystem Function: from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene Conference at the University of Oxford, 18 - 20 March 2014 Oxford University's Ecosystems Research Continue reading

Jens Christian Svenning_Megafauna ecology | Carlsbergfondet

Test of Martin's overkill hypothesis using radiocarbon

Malhi Y, Doughty CE, Galetti M, Smith FA, Svenning JC, Terborgh JW (2016) Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:838-846 CrossRef Google Scholar. Massaferro J, Larocque-Tobler I, Brooks SJ, Vandergoes M, Dieffenbacher-Krall A, Moreno P (2014) Quantifying climate change in Huelmo mire (Chile, Northwestern Patagonia) during the. Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Y Malhi, CE Doughty, M Galetti, FA Smith, JC Svenning, JW Terborgh. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (4), 838-846, 2016. 277: 2016: Defaunation affects carbon storage in tropical forests. C Bello, M Galetti, MA Pizo, LFS Magnago, MF Rocha, RAF Lima, Science advances 1 (11), e1501105, 2015. 261.

Louys and colleagues were able to draw on detailed paleontological histories of megafauna in the tropical Asia-Pacific region to inform current ecosystem restoration concerns. They evaluated the ranges and ecological roles of nine megafaunal taxa during the Pleistocene to assess their viability for rewilding efforts, including species translocations, reintroductions, or range expansions. By. The concept of the Anthropocene. Annual Reviews in Environment and Resources. Malhi, Y. (2017) Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, 113 (4) 838-846. DOI 10.1073/pnas.15025. Malhi Y., Doughty C.E., Galetti M., Smith F.A., et al. (2016 A 2014 conference at Oxford University, Megafauna and ecosystem function: from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene, came to similar conclusions, noting the ecosystem importance of elephants as. The conference blogs from a March meeting, Megafauna and Ecosystem Function: from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene, make for interesting further reading. New labeling techniques that result in startlingly beautiful images of the brain's complex wiring constantly grace the covers of life science publications

Pleistocene rewilding - Wikipedi

Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene: Megafauna in the Earth system: Methods to estimate aboveground wood productivity from long-term forest inventory plots: Modelling Amazonian forest eddy covariance data: a comparison of big leaf versus sun/shade models for the C-14 tower at Manaus I. Canopy photosynthesis : Montane forest root growth and soil organic. 2017), we make an interpretation of grassland functioning based on the legacy of the mammoth steppe. The mammoth steppe of the Pleistocene is an ecosystem regarded as paramount because it sustained much of the now-extinct megafauna of that epoch. The traditional view of graminoid dominance (eg Zimov et al. 1995; Blinnikov et al This review builds on previous work by comparing and synthesizing archaeological evidence for past human-environmental dynamics in Mediterranean climate regions (MED), focusing on major demographic, economic, social, and cultural developments during the terminal Pleistocene (∼13.0 ka; all dates are cal yrs BP unless noted), Holocene, and Anthropocene. We use the term Anthropocene throughout. communities or ecosystem functions (Thomas 2017, Bleige Bird & Nimmo 2018). Humans and human-related activities are integral to the biological processes of the Earth system, arising from the unlikely evolution and then social and technological development of the human ape, ushering in the Anthropocene (Ellis 2018). 4 45 Despite the prevalence of human influences, the fundamental processes that. si.edu - Zoom Seminar The fate and function of marine megafauna: From the Miocene to the Anthropocene June 10, 2021 11:00 am to 12:00 pm Catalina Pimiento For More

L'Anthropocène est un mot qui a été proposé dès le début du XX e siècle mais qui a été popularisé par le Prix Nobel de chimie Paul Crutzen en 1995 afin de délimiter une période au cours de laquelle les activités anthropiques auraient laissé une empreinte sur l'ensemble de la planète. Ce terme a, depuis, fait florès dans la littérature scientifique et, peut-être plus. Living large herbivores are a small remnant of the assemblages of giants that existed in most terrestrial ecosystems 50,000 years ago. The extinction of so many large herbivores may well have triggered large changes in plant communities. In several parts of the world, palaeoecological studies suggest that extinct megafauna once maintained vegetation openness, and in wooded landscapes created. Climate and air-quality benefits of a realistic phase-out of fossil fuels. Climate change and the integrity of science. Climate change considerations are fundamental to management of deep-sea resource extraction. Climate change, disease range shifts, and the future of the Africa lion. Climate change

El Racó del GEMM : Megafauna and ecosystem functio

Saving the World's Terrestrial Megafauna. William J. Ripple, William J. Ripple. William J. Ripple ( bill.ripple@oregonstate.edu ), Robert L. Beschta, Michael Paul Nelson, Luke Painter Christopher Wolf, and Thomas M. Newsome are affiliated with the Global Trophic Cascades Program of the Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society at Oregon State. Megafauna and Ecosystem Function 2014. In 2014, S. Zimov spoke at the conference, Megafauna and ecosystem function in Oxford. The topic of the lecture.. Pardi, M.I. and F.A. Smith, 2014. Trophic downgrading before trophic downgrading: the influence of the terminal Pleistocene on the North American carnivore guild. Megafauna and Ecosystem Function: from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. University of Oxford, St. John's College, Oxford, England, March 18-20

As Professor of Ecosystem Science at the School of Geography and the Environment and Programme Leader in Ecosystems at the Environmental Change Institute, Prof. Malhi's research interests focus on interactions between forest ecosystems and the global atmosphere, with a particular focus on their role in global carbon, energy and water cycles, and in understanding how the ecology of natural. View BIO3515 - Semaine 3.pptx from BIO 3515 at University of Ottawa. IN DEPTH STRAT I GRAP H Y Anthropocene pinned to postwar period Geologists vote to seek a golden spike, but push for forma During the Anthropocene, human-induced extinctions, especially of predators and large herbivores, have resulted in widespread ecosystem changes (Malhi et al., 2016). Moreover, unintentionally or deliberately introduced species have replaced many native species, especially on islands (Wardle, Bardgett, Callaway, & van der Putten, 2011) Aarhus University logo / Aarhus Universitets logo. Find. Englis

(PDF) Conserving ecosystem modifiers: a double-edged swor

Segregation distorters, like chromo somes, serve no useful function for the greater god of the mouse or fy. They serve only themselves. Because they are 0 good at They serve only themselves. Because they are 0 good at spreading, they thrive ven if they do hrm to ther h st dm. T H E S O C I E T Y O f G E N E S 33 They are mutineers against the preailing order But these species have ecological functions that are essential to the functioning of ecosystems. The loss of a species also entails the loss of the ecological role it plays in the ecosystem, and this kind of extinction happens much unnoticed. We have documented the effect of functional extinction of large fruit-eating birds on an important plant trait - seed size - of a key plant species. Crabtree P 1993 Early Animal Domestication in the Middle East and Europe - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Crabtree P 1993 Early Animal Domestication in the Middle East and Europ Malhi Y, Doughty CE, Galetti M, Smith FA, Svenning JC, Terborgh JW (2016) Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 113:838-846. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 113:838-846

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The Pliocene marine megafauna extinction and its impact on

Hoag, C. B. & Svenning, J-C. (2017). African Environmental Change from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 42, 27-54. Oddkin: Story Telling for Earthly Survival TT6 Celebrating 30 Years of Functional Ecology NOW Talk: The Sands of Time: Unlocking the Past to Build the Future Great South East Technology is not going to save us, ecology will! | Theunis Piersma | TEDxFryslân Kiribati ️ COUNTRIES ️ Ecology - Rules for Living on Earth: Crash Course Biology #40Environmental History and Climate.